Hyderabad, Sept. 23 -- There is a famous letter from the English King of the time to Hisham Ibn Abdul Rahman who was the ruler of Cordoba from 788 to 796 in Al Andalus.

The English King, in the letter, sought permission for his daughter and members of his royal court to study in the University of Cordoba - the most advanced university in the West - rival only to the Baghdad University in the East under the Abbasid Rule.

Cordoba was an intellectual hub in the West and a peaceful country where the King's daughter would be safe. And the letter was signed, as the historians mention: Your loyal subject, the King of England.

The most prosperous advanced Muslim rule and civilization of Muslim Spain was a stark contrast to the Christian Europe...