NEWDELHI, April 20 -- A study has found that successful implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (to provide LPG to poor households) and the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Jyoti Yojana (to provide electricity to all rural households) would help India meet the annual national pollution safe standard for PM 2.5 concentrations.

The challenge is ensuring the beneficiaries use the clean fuels and not switch to using biomass - firewood, dung cakes or agricultural residue - which is heavily polluting.

The household emissions from cooking, space heating, water heating and lighting are responsible for as much as 30% of the annual PM 2.5 exposure, according to modelling studies jointly conducted by scientists from IIT Delhi, University of C...